Taj Muhammad Jahangir,, Muhammad Yar Khuhawar,, Sultan Mahmood Leghari,, Muhammad Tariq Mahar, and Arshad Ali Khaskheli

Keywords: Sindh, springs, salinity, water quality, chemical assessment.

Abstract: The focus of the field study reported here are the water quality issues of twenty four natural springs located in Karachi, Thatta, Jamshoro and Tharparkar districts of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The samples collected from these springs were analyzed for water temperature, electrical conductance, TDS, salinity and pH and major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and anions (Cl-, HCO3 -, SO4 2-) by electric probe, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, uv/visible spectrometric and volumetric methods. A paired t-test was used to assess 24 pre- and post-sampling data during the period 2000 - 2001. The order of relative abundance was detected for major cations was Na+> Ca2+> Mg2+>K+ and anions Cl->HCO3->SO4 2-. The values of positive correlation in the number of pairs showed the origin of transport from same lithology. The factor analysis (FA) was applied to water quality and the first two factors identified were responsible for approximately 80% of total variance. The hierarchical cluster analysis was made using the ward method for group relationship and Pearson correlation coefficient derived for parametric relationship, percent sodium (% Sodium), Langelier saturation index (LSI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and permeability index (PI) were made for quality of data and identifying the suitability of water for drinking, industrial and agricultural purposes. The residual sodium carbonate and sodium adsorption ratio indicated for more than 75% springs, were suitable for irrigation purposes. The spring water showed spatial variations among physico-chemical parameters and results were compared with WHO guidelines for drinking water.

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