John C. Hodge

Keywords: Pioneer anomaly, Gravity tests, cosmology.

Abstract: The unexplained sunward acceleration (aP) of the Pioneer 10 (P10) and the Pioneer 11 (P11) spacecrafts remains a mystery. A scalar potential model (SPM) that derived from considerations of galaxy clusters, redshift, and HI rotation curves of spiral galaxies is applied to the Pioneer Anomaly. Matter is posited to warp the scalar potential ? field. The changing ? field along the light path causes the Pioneer Anomaly. The SPM is consistent with the general value of the aP; with the annual periodicity; with the differing aP between the spacecrafts; with the discrepancy between Sigma and CHASMP programs at P10 (I) and their closer agreement at P10 (III); with the slowly declining aP; with the low value of the aP immediately before the P11’s Saturn encounter; with the high uncertainty in the value of the aP obtained during and after the P11’s Saturn encounter; and with the cosmological connection suggested by aP ? cHo. The effect of the ? field warp appears as the curvature of space proposed by the general relativity (GR). The Hubble Law and aP ? cHo are manifestations of the Newtonian spherical property. Therefore, gravitational attraction, the equivalence principle, and the planet ephemeris remain as described by the GR. The GR corresponds to the SPM in the limit in which the Sources and Sinks may be replaced by a flat and static ? field such as between cluster cells and on the Solar System scale at a relatively large distance from a Source or Sink.

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