Wenzhong David Zhang
Keywords: Mixed two-fluid photons, Super photon, Bose-Einstein condensation, dynamic circulation of photons, Superfluidity, conjugate pair of photons.
Abstract: There is a vast thermal bath of photons in the Universe. A new description is proposed as mixed two-fluid photons. A theoretical illustration is provided for photon particles from the analysing of the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation and the estimation of the Lambda-point transition temperature of super-fluidity by the application of the London formula obtained in 1938. For photons with wavelength long enough and with number density high enough, for instance, Super photons, it is feasible that they can be in the quantum liquid state of super-fluidity, although the interactions between them are weak, and the temperatures of their environments are not low. The detection of the unexpectedly deep absorption profile of radio background spectrum and that local areas in free space can be warmed up or cooled down to a temperature distribution by artificially controlled or temporarily appeared intense flux of high energy photons are listed as supportive evidences of Super photon theory and mixed two-fluid photons.The general form of the Einstein-Smoluchowski-Sutherland relation is derived for a specified volume of space. A mathematic frame for the dynamic circulation of mixed two-fluid photons with fluctuation is developed quantitatively. A significant rediscovering is that a photon particle in the time and spatial domain is the superposition of a conjugate pair of single frequency photon waves in the frequency domain. The similarity between mixed two-fluid photons and two-fluid liquid helium at super-fluidity is compared briefly, which comprise yet more evidence to support the theory of the dynamic circulation of mixed two-fluid photons.
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