Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences

An International Journal

    Volume 8, Issue: 1, Feb 2014


  • CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM MEASUR EMENT FOR SI NGLE- CELL DRUG EFFICACY AND CARDIO TOXI CITY EVALUATIONS USING M I CROFLUIDIC BIOCHIPS
    Xi u Ju n Li and Pa u l C H Li

    Intracell u lar ca lciu m ([Ca 2 ] i ) regu lates a d i v erse ran g e of cellu lar fu n ction s an d sign aling pathways. Th is rev i ew article aim s to highlight a pplications of m i crof luidi c single-cell a n alysis in drug discovery incl udi ng drug e ffi cacy test a n d drug side-e ffect test, base d on intr a cellular calcium measurem ent.

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  • Page No: 2663-2669

  • DETECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS-21 GENOTYPES IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI WOMEN WITH CERVICAL ABNORMALITIES AND CANCER
    Hul a Y Fadhi l , Dhuha S Sal e h and Fai s al G Al -Ham dani

    To determ ine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV i n fect i on i n Iraq by newl y devel oped t echni que. In t h i s st udy , 188 wom e n wi t h cervi cal dy spl a si a (CIN I, II/ III), 7 wom e n wi t h squam ous cervi cal cancer, 40 wom e n wi t h atypical squam ous cell and cervicitis and 25 healthy wom e n as control group were coll ected. For Detection of HPV types, DNA extracted from cervical exfoliated cells was ev aluated by polym erase chai n reaction and typing with genoarray test. HPV-DNA positive was found 28.94% (68/235) in th e cases but was absent in the control group. In the cases, the detection rate of HPV DNA in cy tological categories atypical squam ous with chronic cervicitis, LSIL (CIN I), HSIL(CIN II-III), and cancer was 5% (2/ 40), 30.34% (44/ 145) , 34.88%(15/ 43), and 100%(7/ 7 ), respect i v el y . Sevent een di fferent HPV genot y p es were i nvest i g at ed am ong 68 i n fect ed wom e n. M o reover, t e n di fferent HPV for t h e fi rst t i m e i n Iraqi wom e n were recorded. Our fi ndi ng dem onst r at ed a predom i n ance of HPV-59 (14.4%) fol l o wed by HPV-16 (13.3%) of al l i n fect i on, but HPV-16 t h e m o st com m on t y pe i n HSIL and cancer was observed. Our resul t s provi de evi d ence t h e genoarray usi ng for det ect i on was i n creasi ng t h e num ber of i s ol at es. Si nce 28% of i n fect ed wom e n had HPV-16 and -18, the HPV vaccine is im portance to in troduction. Moreover, HPV-16, - 45 and -18 were highly associ at ed wi t h i n creasi ng severi t y of t h e di sease, t hus t h e st rongest ri sk fact or for persi s t e nce of i n fect i on was t h e presence of these types

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  • Page No: 2671-2676

  • BIOMASS, CARBON STOCK AND CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION POTENTIAL OF CEDRUS DEODARA (DEODAR) UNDER TEMPERATE CONDITIONS OF KASHMIR
    Nasir Rashid Wani, Khwaja Naved Qaisar and Parvez Ahmad Khan

    Carbon management in forests is the global concern to mitigate the increased concentration of greenhouse gases. Carbon sequestration through biomass seems to be a cheap and viable option to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The study attempted to estimate growth, biomass production, carbon stock and carbon dioxide mitigation potential of 19 year old Cedrus deodara plantation under different diameter classes. The volume of trees in the stand varied from 0.072 to 0.596m3. The average dry stem biomass varied between 27.60 to 226.67kg, branch dry biomass between 7.88 to 64.14kg, needle dry biomass between 1.57 to18.19kg, total above ground dry biomass between 37.06 to 309.0kg and root dry biomass varied from 8.88 to77.25kg. The stem carbon varied from 12.80 to 105.15kg, branch carbon between 3.62 to 29.53kg, needle carbon between 0.67 to 7.78kg, root carbon between 4.09 to 35.66kg and total carbon between 21.18 to 178.12kg. The stem carbon dioxide mitigation potential varied from 46.83 to 384.84kg, branch from 12.91 to 108.07kg, needle from 2.44 to 28.47kg, root from 14.99 to 130.51kg and total carbon dioxide mitigation varied from 73.92 to 651.91kg

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  • Page No: 2677-2684

  • INFECTION DYNAMICS OF SCHISTOCEPHALUS SOLIDUS (MULLER, 1776), IN THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK, GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS L. IN AIRTHREY LOCH, SCOTLAND
    Zafer Iqbal

    Infection of Schistocephalus solidus in three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus was investigated for over a two year period from Airthrey Loch, Scotland. Altogether 1301 fishes were sampled. A total of 1327 S. solidus plerocercoid worms were extracted from the visceral cavity of 385 fish. The prevalence was 29.55%, mean intensity (3.44) and abundance (1.01). Monthly prevalence and abundance showed significant difference in two years. Infection in female (14.68%) was higher than male fish (5.99%). The highest infection was recorded in autumn and spring. There are two waves of infection, the first wave operates from July to October and second starts in February and ends in June. The growth of S. Solidus in the fish is influenced by a rise in water temperature in summer. In natural environment, probably different biotic and abiotic factors may affect the transmission of S. solidus and thus may affect the prevalence and intensity of infection. Such factors could influence the survival of coracidia, or abundance of suitable copepod at a given time. The growth of plerocercoid in the fish host may be influenced by factors both internal and external to the fish host. It is concluded that S. solidus was moderately established in second intermediate host G. aculeatus in Airthrey Loch

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  • Page No: 2685-2690

  • PSATHYRELLA CANDOLLEANA (FR.) MARIE, A SAPROPHYTIC FUNGUS FORMING ORCHID MYCORRHIZA IN SATYRIUM NEPALENSE D. DON FROM INDIA
    BS Jyothsna and KB Purushothama

    Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Marie is a saprophytic fungus which inhabits litter in the forest ecosystem. Satyrium nepalense var. nepalense, a rare autotrophic terrestrial orchid was found associated with this fungus forming orchid mycorrhiza. Isolation from root and tuber yielded two different fungi on Potato dextrose agar medium. Molecular identification of the fungal cultures was carried out by sequencing ITS region of nuclear rDNA. The isolate from the root was identified as Psathyrella candolleana and the isolate from tuber as Colletotrichum dematium .Light microscopic studies of the roots have shown that 60% of the cortical cells contained both digested and intact pelotons. TEM studies of the root have revealed the fine structure of the pelotons with the hyphae observed in the form of fungal cells with thick chitin wall. Pelotons were surrounded by the host cell membrane as an electron dense interfacial matrix suggesting biotrophic relationship. The cortical cells showed shrinkage of protoplasm indicating digestion of the pelotons. An anatomical study of the tuber has not revealed any pelotons. This is the first report of Psathyrella candolleana as an orchid mycorrhizal fungus colonizing the roots of Satyrium nepalense from the Indian region

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  • Page No: 2691-2697

  • DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM) LEAVES, FRUITS AND SOIL SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM ASABA METROPOLIS, SOUTHERN NIGERIA
    Gabriel CC Ndinwa, Anislt Mirsm, CO Chukumah, Mens Mirsm, KI Obarakpor, EA Edafe and WE Morka

    Soil, tomato leaves and tomato fruits collected from Asaba metropolis were digested and analyzed for metals such as lead, copper, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, manganese, arsenic, iron, selenium and cobalt. The aforementioned metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results obtained revealed that all the metals were detected and there were metal variations. Metal concentration in soil samples exceeded those of tomato leaves. Also, tomato leaves metals were higher than those values obtained in tomato fruits. This is an indication that the soil was pollution to the tomato leaves and fruits. The highest concentrations were found to lead and iron

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  • Page No: 2715-2720

  • THE SEX RATIO, GONADOSOMATIC INDEX AND STAGES OF GONADAL DEVELOPMENT OF SADDLE GRUNT FISH, POMADASYS MACULATUM (BLOCH, 1793) OF KARACHI COAST
    Amtyaz, M Atiqullah Khan, M Zaheer Khan and M Usman Ali Hashmi

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of saddle grunt fish, Pomadasys maculatum (Block, 1793) of the Karachi coast were investigated. Pomadasys maculatum had a sex ratio of 1: 1.36 (male to female). The difference in sex ratio was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the expected theoretically 1: 1 distribution except June, September and December. Gonadosomatic index value in males during August – November were 3.109 to 5.630, while in females the high values during August – December were found to be 3.542 to 6.679, which suggested the spawning period. The highest GSI value in males was 5.967 in stage VI and the lowest GSI value was 1.256 recorded during VII stage. GSI values in males increased slowly reaching for maximum in 5.967 in (stage VI), while in females at high value was 6.630 during stage VI and the lowest GSI values were 1.625 and 1.124 during stages I & II respectively. Seven stages of gonadal development were observed in male and female fish. Pomadasys maculatum is found in coastal waters over sand near reefs or muddy bottoms. The results will increase our knowledge of reproductive biology of Pomadasys maculatum which is relevant for fisheries and aquaculture management as well as breeding programs

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  • Page No: 2721-2726

  • OCCURRENCE OF BLACK SPOT DISEASE IN LABEO ROHITA (HAMILTON) FRY IN CARP FISH HATCHERY LAHORE, PAKISTAN
    Zafar Iqbal, Sonia A Shukerova and Imtiaz K Minhas

    Two hundred fry of Labeo rohita were obtained from Central Fish Seed Hatchery Lahore. The mean total length of fry was 20.47 mm. The fry were examined to be infected with metacercaria of a digenetic fluke Posthodiplostomum cuticola. The infection resulted in the formation of black spots on the skin of fry. This infection is commonly called as a Black spot disease or Posthodiplostomasis in fish. The prevalence of P. cuticola was 100% and mean intensity of infection was 4.495. The size of metacercaria varied from 0.70 - 0.98 mm. A moderate significant relationship existed between the total length of the fry and number of black spots (r2 = 0.15). The black spots were randomly distributed on the body of fry. The ventral side of the fry (Section-I); was having a significantly higher number of the black spots than the dorsal side (Section II) (?2 = 3.75; P = 0.05). No skeletal deformation was observed in the infected fry. The black spot disease in L. rohita fry, its relationship to pond management and control is discussedTwo hundred fry of Labeo rohita were obtained from Central Fish Seed Hatchery Lahore. The mean total length of fry was 20.47 mm. The fry were examined to be infected with metacercaria of a digenetic fluke Posthodiplostomum cuticola. The infection resulted in the formation of black spots on the skin of fry. This infection is commonly called as a Black spot disease or Posthodiplostomasis in fish. The prevalence of P. cuticola was 100% and mean intensity of infection was 4.495. The size of metacercaria varied from 0.70 - 0.98 mm. A moderate significant relationship existed between the total length of the fry and number of black spots (r2 = 0.15). The black spots were randomly distributed on the body of fry. The ventral side of the fry (Section-I); was having a significantly higher number of the black spots than the dorsal side (Section II) (?2 = 3.75; P = 0.05). No skeletal deformation was observed in the infected fry. The black spot disease in L. rohita fry, its relationship to pond management and control is discussed

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  • Page No: 2727-2731

  • SOYBEAN FORTIFICATION OF MAASA: A GHANAIAN FERMENTED MILLET-BASED CAKE
    James Owusu-Kwarteng and Fortune Akabanda

    Fortification of commonly consumed cereals with inexpensive plant protein sources such as soybeans has been exploited to improve the protein quality of staple foods through a mutual complementation of their limiting amino acids. In Ghana and other parts of West Africa, millet is used for the processing of many traditional fermented foods including maasa. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soybean fortification on the fermentation characteristics and proximate composition of fermented millet dough as well as consumer acceptability of maasa produced from different soy-millet blends. Maasa samples were prepared from a blend of steeped pearl millet grains and pre-soaked, blanched, hand dehulled soybean added at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% replacement levels. The millet-soybean blends were wet-milled, formulated into a dough, spontaneously fermented for 14 h and fried into cake known as maasa. During spontaneous fermentation, samples were analyzed for pH, total titratable acidity, microbial counts and proximate composition. Finally, maasa prepared from the fermented millet-soybean blends were assessed for consumer acceptability using a nine point hedonic scale. There was a general decrease in pH from 5.4-5.5 to 3.9-4.1 pH units and an increase in titratable acidity from 0.10-0.30 to 0.58-1.26 (%lactic acid) during the 14 h fermentation period. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts reached 9.7 and 8.0 logcfu/g respectively. Crude protein and fat contents increased with the addition of soybeans whereas carbohydrate content reduced. Consumer sensory evaluation showed that fortification with 20% soybean positively affected taste, colour, texture and the overall acceptability of maasa. Therefore, soybean can be used to fortify the Ghanaian millet-based maasa to improve nutrient quality and acceptability of maasa by replacing 20% of the millet with soybeans prior to milling and fermentation.

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  • Page No: 2733-2738

  • EVALUATION OF SOME MICRONUTRIENT PATTERNS IN BLOOD SAMPLE OF TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS
    GS George, AA Uwakwe and F Ogbotobo

    To investigate the relationship of micronutrients concentration in Type 1 Diabetic Patients and how their interactions affect the homeostasis in this hyperglycemic state, we evaluated the concentration of calcium, magnesium, zinc and glucose. We observed a concomitant increase in calcium with raised glucose level while magnesium and zinc levels where decreased. Using only Samples with plasma glucose above threshold (>10.0mmol/L) the micronutrients were measured at time intervals of 0 to 30 mins, 60 mins, 120 minutes, 180 mins and 240 mins. It was observed that raised glucose induced significant (P< 0.05) elevation of calcium from 20.2 + 1.4 mmol/L to 60.4 + 21 mmol/L while reduction of magnesium and zinc were in the order 180 + 7 to 58.4 + 3 ?mol/L and 15.4 + 0.5 to 4.3 + 0.4 ?mol/L respectively. We conclude that variations in concentration of micronutrients may elicit clinical expression of common abnormal homeostatic environment expressed partly by the reduced levels of magnesium and zinc that complicates the diabetic process

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  • Page No: 2739-2741

  • APPLICATION OF X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR ANALYZING CLEATS AND PORES FOR COALBED METHANE IN COAL FROM THAR COALFIELD
    Imdadullah Siddiqui,Sarfraz H Solangi, Aftab Ahmed Soomro, Mashooque Ali Warar, Muhammad Kashif Samoon and Sohail Ajmal

    The computed tomography (CT) is a non-destructive technique that can provide information of internal structure of coal in 2D, this technology is now widely used in geoscientific research. This technique is used for the measuring cleat dimension and pore width of the coal. The slicing study of Thar coal shows that the length of cleats in various seams ranges from 0.5mm to 5mm and the aperture of these cleats vary between 0.1mm to0.5mm. The porosity also plays an important role in storage and production of coalbed methane, the size or width of pores in coal under investigation ranges between 0.1mm to 0.7mm. The present investigation shows that seam III and V of the Thar coalfield can be considered as viable as hold a potential for CBM resources, however, the coal samples from these seams need to be analyzed for the presence of methane

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  • Page No: 2743-2749

  • QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF FOUNDRY OPERATION IN NIGERIA USING SIX SIGMA TECHNIQUE
    Abidakun OA, Leramo RO, Ohunakin OS, Babarinde TO and Ekundayo-Osunkoya AO

    In this paper Six Sigma DMAIC analysis was applied in an aluminium mill in order to identify sources and causes of waste with the intention of providing veritable solutions. The foundry section was the segment under scrutiny. Re-work or defects in this firm was found to be on the average of about 37.05% of total production for the twenty-three months under study (January 2009- December 2010). Defect reduction was therefore chosen as the Critical-to-Quality (CTQ) factor. The sigma level of 1.87 in the firm indicated the existence of opportunities for improvement. Analysis was carried out using SPSS, SPC for Excel to perform regression analysis, process capability analysis, generate descriptive statistics, histograms and run charts. The results of these analyses identified three major defects and some of their behaviours. Based on the analysis, solutions were proffered in the Improve and Control phases of this project. Implementation of the proffered solutions resulted in noticeable improvement and led to the firm operating with near- perfect processes thus proving the applicability of Six Sigma

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  • Page No: 2751-2760

  • REDUCTION OF THE SPARK IGNITION ENGINE EMISSIONS USING LIMESTONE FILTER
    Wail Adaileh and Ali Alahmer

    This paper presents an experimental study to reduce of a spark ignition engine (SI) emissions using a low cost limestone filter. The limestone filter was constructed and tested on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition Nissan Sunny sedan engine (1.6 L) model 2008. The limestone filter was placed in a cast iron housing through the exhaust gas passes. The concentration of pollutant emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) was measured with and without using limestone filter. The experimental results showed that the pollutant emissions were decreased dramatically after using limestone filter

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  • Page No: 2761-2767

  • BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD
    Akpila, S B

    Bearing capacity and settlement response of raft foundations placed on sand was carried out using standard penetration test on soil lithology consisting of loose, silty to slightly silty SAND, overlying medium-dense slightly silty SAND. Results showed that allowable bearing capacity, qa, had a decreasing trend with an increase in raft foundation breadth whereas for a given foundation breadth, qa increased with foundation depth. Allowable bearing capacity also decreased as the ratio of foundation depth, Df, to breadth, B ratio (Df/B) decreased. Immediate and consolidation settlement increased with foundation breadth, bearing pressure and foundation depth. Comparatively, Burland and Burbidge approach had a higher total settlement against those of Harr. The predictive models can be useful for preliminary design purposes on sites with similar conditions

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  • Page No: 2769-2774

  • DESIGN OF GENERIC ANTIVIRUS SYSTEM
    Osaghae OE, Egbokhare, FA and Chiemeke SC

    Antivirus software developers are advocating for sophisticated antivirus designs to implement their antivirus systems. However, the current antivirus systems heavily rely on updating of their malicious signature databases to detect malicious codes in executable programs. The problem with frequent update of malicious signatures databases is that it is not scalable; it cannot detect malicious code whose signature is not in the malicious signature database. Consequently, we designed a generic antivirus system that does not contain malicious database but rather, malicious codes are detected by the type of operating system functions used by the executable program. The proposed generic antivirus system uses deterministic finite automata, Naïve Bayes and Chi square techniques to detect malicious codes in executable programs. When the generic antivirus system is deployed to any operating system environment, malicious codes can be accurately detected in executable programs without a need to update its malicious signature database.

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  • Page No: 2775-2782

  • SOME PROBLEMS OF FINDING OF EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS FOR SH-WAVE PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC PIEZOELECTROMAGNETICS
    AA Zakharenko

    This short theoretical work discusses some problems of finding of the suitable eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors represent the solutions of the coupled equations of motion written in the well-known tensor form. These coupled equations of motion describe shear-horizontal (SH) wave propagation in the transversely isotropic piezoelectromagnetic materials of class 6mm when the SH-wave propagation is coupled with both the electrical and magnetic potentials. It is stated that as many as six eigenvalues can be soundly found for the problem. The problem is that some eigenvalues result in the corresponding certain eigenvectors and some eigenvalues allow existence of uncertain eigenvectors that can be chosen by a researcher. This uncertainty allows researchers to choose several certain forms for the uncertain eigenvectors. It is discussed that the author of this report has used the certain forms for the uncertain eigenvectors that are naturally coupled with the certain eigenvectors. However, some researchers suggest to use the following forms for the uncertain eigenvectors: (0,1,0) and (0,0,1). It is stated that the simplest and perhaps convenient eigenvectors in the forms of (0,1,0) and (0,0,1) are actually unsuitable because they are independent from the certain eigenvectors and the CMEMC coupling mechanisms. It is very important to use suitable eigenvectors because different forms of them can result in different final expressions for the velocities of the SH-waves. The SH-wave velocity is a very important wave characteristic and evaluation of its value can help for creation and optimization of novel technical devices based on surface, interfacial, and plate SH-waves

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  • Page No: 2783-2787

  • RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH GEOPHAGIA IN GHANA
    Woode, A and Hackman-Duncan, SF

    An investigation was conducted to determine the risks associated with the ingestion of some geophagy clays mined in Ghana, Nigeria and Cote d’voire. These clays are widely distributed through major marketing centres in Ghana and within the West African sub-region. Samples of the geophagy clays were purchased from selected markets in the Greater Accra region and then subjected to X-ray fluorescence analysis to determine the levels of heavy metals present in them and their potential effects on consumers. The results indicate that the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and cobalt contained in 70g of the geopagy clay were far higher than the WHO/FAO and USDA approved maximum daily tolerable intake. This was interpreted to mean that consumers were at risk of heavy metal contamination which could lead to various diseases. The extent of bioavailability of these toxic elements to consumers of the clay was however not established. It was concluded that geophagy clay sold on Ghanaian markets could have potentially negative health impact on consumers if consumed at 70g per day or more and on regular basis.

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  • Page No: 2789-2794

  • APPLICATIONS OF INFORMATION MEASURES FOR THE STUDY OF GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS
    Om Parkash and Mukesh

    Finding the relationships between information measures and statistical constants leads to the applicability of information theory to the field of statistics. In the existing literature of information theory, there are many well known information theoretic measures, each with its own merits, limitations and areas of applications. In the present communication, we have developed new generalized parametric divergence measure and provided its applications along with the other parametric information theoretic measure to the field of Statistics by establishing the relationships of information contents with some statistical constants of Gaussian distribution

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  • Page No: 2795-2799

  • QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED GROUNDWATER SAMPLES IN AMIKE – ABA, ABAKALIKI EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
    SO Ngele, E J Itumoh, NC Onwa and F Alobu

    The quality of selected groundwater (borehole) samples in Amike – Aba, were assessed for physicochemical parameters, trace metals and bacteriological tests for a period of seven weeks following standard water sampling and analysis procedures. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the range 6.38 – 6.44 for pH, 26.20 – 26.35 for temperature, 0.20 – 0.25 mg/L O2 for BOD5, 10.87 – 12.98 ?S/cm for conductivity, 32.16 – 34.87 mg/L for total hardness and 4.00 – 6.00 TCU for colour. The result of the bacteriological analysis showed that the total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) of the samples ranged from 2.4 × 102 – 4.2 × 103 CFU/mL. The total coliform count also ranged from 280 – 540 MPN/100 mL. The study revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Psedomonas aeuginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis and Bacillus sp. in the water samples. The results of the trace metals showed the range (in mg/L) 0.223 – 0.273 for Fe, 0.048 – 0.059 for Cr, 0.0081 – 0.099 for Pb, 0.032 – 0.040 for Cu, 0.021 – 0.024 for Mn and 0.097 – 0.143 for Mg. Compared with World Health Organization limits and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, the results revealed the groundwater samples are facing various hydrological stress and possible contamination which could change the quality of the groundwater in the near future

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  • Page No: 2801-2805

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