Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences

An International Journal

    Volume 16, Issue: 2, Jun 2022

    John C. Hodge

    A scalar potential model (SPM) was developed from considerations of galaxy clusters and of redshift. The SPM is applied to H I rotation curves (RCs) and RC asymmetry of spiral galaxies. The resulting model adds the force of a scalar potential of the host galaxy and of neighboring galaxies to the Newtonian rotation velocity equation. The RC is partitioned radially into regions. The form of the equation for each parameter of each region is the same with differing proportionality constants. Integer values of each equation are determined empirically for each galaxy. Among the sample galaxies, the global properties of galaxies of B band luminosity, of position, and of orientation determine the RC and RC asymmetry. The Source of the scalar field acts as a monopole at distances of a few kpc from the center of spiral galaxies. The scalar potential field causes Newtonian mechanics to considerably underestimate the mass in galaxies, which is the “missing mass problem”. The SPM is consistent with RC and RC asymmetry observations of the sample spiral galaxies.

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  • Page No: 5427-5445

    Francois Marais , Bipin Neupane , Sagar Adhikari , Justin Hegstad , Yuan Liu , Bradley Bisek and Xuehui Li

    D-tritipyrums (2n = 42; AABBJd J d ) are hexaploid hybrids with A and B genome chromosomes from Triticum turgidum L. var durum (2n = 28, AABB) and/or Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42 = AABBDD) and a set of seven Jd chromosomes that derive from the J1 d and J2 d genomes of Thinopyrum distichum (Thunb.) Löve (2n = 28; J1 d J1 d J2 d J2 d ). A d-tritipyrum collection consisting of lines with diverse combinations of J d chromosomes has been derived through reassortment of the J1 d and J2 d genome chromosomes, yet not all of these chromosome sets are genetically balanced and agronomically useful. Forty-seven d-tritipyrums and seven d-tritipyrum/wheat hybrid derivatives were therefore analyzed to identify the J d genome chromosomes in each. Genome-wide sequence tags were acquired through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and sorted with the aid of appropriate control genotypes to obtain a pool of Th. distichum associated sequence tags. Nine Th.- distichum single chromosome addition lines in hexaploid triticale were then used as reference genotypes to identify appropriate sequences for analyzing each homoeologous group within each line. Nineteen different Jd chromosome subsets were found among the lines. The “best” J d genome was identified based on plant phenotype and fertility and included chromosomes 1J2 d , 2J1 d , 3J2 d , 4J2 d , 5J1 d , 6J2 d and 7J2 d . Six phenotypically diverse d-tritipyrum lines with the selected genome will form the basis of a new breeding population and will be used as pivotal Jd genotypes to broaden its A, B and J d genome variability through backcross-based introgression.

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  • Page No: 5447-5461

    Jeremy Dunning-Davies

    This short paper touches on black holes representing favourite objects for so many different groups of people to discuss. Many physicists discuss them quite seriously, while their possible existence must bring great joy to writers of science fiction. However, what is the theoretical background for their existence and what precisely is meant by the term ‘black hole’?

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  • Page No: 5463-5466

    Zara Haman , Delphine Korgaï , Huisken PW Mejouyo , Bakary TD Justin and Gomdje V Hambate

    The aims of the present study is to extract and characterize the fibers of Cameroonian banana tree stalk (HB) from the” faux French” variety. The fibers are extracted by retting method. Structural, functional and thermal properties where then determined. The physico-mechanical properties such as density, linear density, moisture content, water absorption rate, moisture recovery rate and tensile properties were evaluated. These values showed that the banana tree stalk has good properties comparable to certain cellulosic fibers. The structural, functional and thermal analysis showed that type 1 cellulose is the major constituent of fiber from the banana tree stalk with amorphous structure having 3.61 crystallinity degree. The elongation vibrations of functional groups such as hydroxyl groups are those present in the cellulose molecule. In addition, the degradation temperature is between 3120C and 4410C. Physico-mechanical analyzes have shown that banana tree stalk fibers can take up 10.57 to 11.25% of humidity and can absorb more than 100% of water. Tensile mechanical properties show that the fibers are elastic, rigid and resistant. The elongation varies from 3.73 to 3.98%, the tenacity from 0.07 to 0.17 N/Tex, the breaking force from 3.13 N to 4.32 N and the initial modulus from 2.17 to 5.84 GPa. Banana tree stalk fiber can be used for similar applications as flax, sisal and ramie fibers.

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  • Page No: 5467-5473

    John C. Hodge

    The unexplained sunward acceleration (aP) of the Pioneer 10 (P10) and the Pioneer 11 (P11) spacecrafts remains a mystery. A scalar potential model (SPM) that derived from considerations of galaxy clusters, redshift, and HI rotation curves of spiral galaxies is applied to the Pioneer Anomaly. Matter is posited to warp the scalar potential ? field. The changing ? field along the light path causes the Pioneer Anomaly. The SPM is consistent with the general value of the aP; with the annual periodicity; with the differing aP between the spacecrafts; with the discrepancy between Sigma and CHASMP programs at P10 (I) and their closer agreement at P10 (III); with the slowly declining aP; with the low value of the aP immediately before the P11’s Saturn encounter; with the high uncertainty in the value of the aP obtained during and after the P11’s Saturn encounter; and with the cosmological connection suggested by aP ? cHo. The effect of the ? field warp appears as the curvature of space proposed by the general relativity (GR). The Hubble Law and aP ? cHo are manifestations of the Newtonian spherical property. Therefore, gravitational attraction, the equivalence principle, and the planet ephemeris remain as described by the GR. The GR corresponds to the SPM in the limit in which the Sources and Sinks may be replaced by a flat and static ? field such as between cluster cells and on the Solar System scale at a relatively large distance from a Source or Sink.

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  • Page No: 5475-5482

    Shaista Aslam , Saima Siddiqui , Ubaid Ullah , Uzma Manzoor , Tahira Lateef , Naseem Samreen , Ponum Nasir , Sehrish Khan , Laraiba Noor and Syed A Ghalib

    Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world with rich diversity of wild animals and ecosystems. Seven healthy populations of Brown bear are found in Karakoram ranges, Hindu Kush and Himalayan mountains. The vertebrate biodiversity includes 198 species of mammals, 700 bird species, 177 reptilian species, 22 amphibian species and 198 species of fresh water fishes. Five species of marine and eight species of freshwater turtles were also recorded. Several globally important endangered species such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Brown bear, Balochistan black bear, Astor markhor and Indus River dolphin are also part of wildlife of Pakistan. Hingol National Park is a unique national park and comprises of six ecosystems including Arabian Sea, rugged mountains, desert, river, estuary and open plains. Many endemic species including Indus dolphin, Balochistan black bear, Chiltan markhor and Wholly flying squirrels have also been recorded in Pakistan. A lot of research work has been done to observe and record the wildlife of Pakistan. This paper is mainly focused on a review of some selected published data on vertebrate wildlife of Pakistan up to 2022.

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  • Page No: 5483-5495

    Jeremy Dunning-Davies

    For many years it was felt that, when a star collapsed, a white dwarf resulted if the mass of the original star was below the Chandrasekhar limit, a neutron star if the mass was somewhat larger but still less than four or five solar masses, but after that, black holes were felt to provide the only possible final state. The extension of this hierarchy to include the possibility of quark, and even sub-quark, stars has been proposed and here is used to offer an alternative explanation for the recently published photograph credited to Eckart and Genzel, purporting to show stars near the center of our Galaxy moving at very high speeds. The same basic ideas are used also to consider the even more recent results of Schödel and collaborators concerning the detailed observations of a stellar orbit very close to the center of our Galaxy.

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  • Page No: 5497-5500

    Badr Alharbi , Saud Alharbi , Wael AlSehli , Hamdan AlFuraidi , Muhammed H. AlJabri , Mansour Awad and Muhamad AlMutairi

    A narrative review involves the process of reviewing publications that discuss what is rightfully regarded as the state of science of a specific theme from a contextual and methodological perspective (Plaza et al., 2019). Normally the review articles are not involved in listing the methodological and databases that were used in conducting the review. There are few advantages that are seen in narrative reviews. One of them is the fact that they are informative in the sense that they are usually up-to-date, and hence the themes discussed are quite educative. Another advantage comes about where the reviews save time and costs that would be used on meta-analysis. The disadvantage is found in the fact they are judgmental and standardized to suit specific needs. However, the paper introduces the topic of research that involves obesity as a global problem and the knowledge gap. It is evident that the issue of obesity is becoming an issue of concern around the world as it escalates to becoming a major global problem. According to World Health Organization – WHO (2022) since 1975 globally obesity has tripled, in 2019, an estimated 38.2 million children under the age of 5 years were obese. The research question is also introduced that includes who will take responsibility for obesity? The paper then provides a summary of the research capturing all the key points that have been explored.

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  • Page No: 5501-5504

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