Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences

An International Journal

    Volume 16, Issue: 1, Feb 2022

    Wenzhong David Zhang

    A dynamic elementary dipole model, with a spinning twin elementary unit charge particles having opposite signs of the charges, is proposed to explain the internal structure and the mutually induced oscillating electric and magnetic fields of a propagating photon. The twin elementary unit charge particles under electric attraction force form a dynamic elementary dipole and achieve a relatively stable orbital motion with a constant drifting speed of its mass centre. From a combined mechanical and electromagnetic analysing, the widely accepted formula for the fine structure constant is derived. It is revealed that the fine structure constant is the ratio of the radius of the dynamic elementary dipole to the corresponding radius of its photon. The fine structure constant is also derived as the ratio of the spinning angular frequency inside the dynamic elementary dipole to the corresponding angular frequency of its photon. In the effect of the spin, the drift movement of the mass centre of the dynamic elementary dipole, accomplished in the joined action of the electric and the magnetic fields, is derived as the light speed in the free space. Base on the derivation of the least action of the spinning elementary unit charge particle, a modified uncertainty principle is proposed. The modified uncertainty principle permits dramatically increased levels of precision for scientific measurements and engineering design in comparison with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The spin energy of the elementary unit charge particle inside the dynamic elementary dipole is derived as just half of the energy of its photon. The quantum number of half for the spinning elementary unit charge particle is deduced. The free space is revealed as a dielectric medium full of dynamic elementary dipoles, having electric and magnetic polarizability naturally.

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  • Page No: 5359-5366

    R. Iyer, C. O’Neill, M. Malaver, J. Hodge, W. Zhang and E. Taylor

    Gleaning through the merits of novel PDP circuit assembly model advanced as extensions of electromagnetic gaging point dissipative physics model of the Iyer-Markoulakis formalism in the Helmholtz Hamiltonian gage formalism of Iyer-O’Neill-Malaver, we have progressed discontinuity dissipative physics modeling Integrated Model (IM). Integrated Model grand unifies point dissipative dynamics evolutionary Iyer-Markoulakis-O’Neill-Malaver formalism with emergent discontinuum Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) Hodge model. Effectively, IM has capacity to explain all the four force fields of electromagnetism, gravity, strong force, and the weak force. Currently, it has been initiated only in the form of algorithm equation based on pure mathematical tensor metrics properties with observable physics formalisms. Quantum density matrix with scalar potential matrix and the wavefunction inner product and connecting functional algorithmic equation is gaged to vacuum solutions of magnetic hod Plenum* PDP assemblage. This has achievement by equating Integrated Model quantum cosmological algorithm vacuum gage fields equation of magnetic tensor action on electric tensor fields point gradient vortex discontinuity dissipative physics. Mesoscopic observable examples have been successfully analogized by applying developed theoretical algorithm. We extend presently Integrated Model to explain the primordial progenitor mechanism of prime factorization of superfluid of noisy signals vacuum Superluminal quanta generating ordered energy signals forming magnetic Hod Plenum* PDP assemblages. Subsequently, emergent “curdling” process of “hod photons” to electron-positron particles promotes building up of protons, neutrons, atoms, with gluonic links to quantum, mesoscopic to astrophysical spiral elliptical galaxies’ sourcesink mechanism manifesting cyclic universe. Quantum Mechanics applies where gravitation is insignificant, and the dimensions are very small. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard model. The strength of the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The axioms that replace Quantum Mechanics are: (1) The universe is causative and three dimensional. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density, ?. Higher ? reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods (light) is the greatest of any matter in each environment. (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.

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  • Page No: 5367-5377

    John C. Hodge

    A derivation of a theoretical, time average, cosmic microwave background (CMB), Planckian temperature V of the universe remains a challenge. A scalar potential model (SPM) that resulted from considerations of galaxy cells is applied to deriving a value for V. The heat equation is solved for a cell with the boundary conditions of SPM Source and Sink characteristics, with simplified cell characteristics, and with zero initial temperature. The universe is a collection of cells. The CMB radiation is black body radiation with the cells acting as radiators and absorbers. Conventional thermodynamics is applied to calculate V = 2.718... [K]. The temperature and matter content of cells are finely controlled by a feedback mechanism. Because time is required for matter to flow from Sources to Sinks, the radiation temperature of cells cycles about V after an initial growth phase. If the universe is like an ideal gas in free expansion and is not in thermal equilibrium, then the pressure and volume follow the measured CMB temperature vm = 2.725 ± 0.002 [K]. Therefore, increasing vm > V equates to an expansion pressure on matter and expanding volume.

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  • Page No: 5379-5382

    Aleksey Anatolievich Zakharenko

    This paper reviews the articles published in the Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (CJPAS) for the last fifteen years (15 volumes) from 2007 to 2021. The CJPAS authors relate to all the geographic places such as the North and South America, Europe and Asia, Oceania and Africa. Large contributions to this Journal are made by many authors of such countries as the Australia, Canada, USA, China, Russia, Japan, Great Britain, Switzerland, France, Italy, Ireland, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Brazil, Colombia, Korea, South Africa, NE Africa, Cameroun, Algeria, Morocco, Venezuela, Uruguay, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Sultanate of Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Fiji Islands, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Macau, Ghana, and Nigeria. Since 2007 as many as 641 high-quality papers were published in the CJPAS, an international peer-reviewed Journal. On average it is ~ 43 papers annually and ~ 15 papers per issue (three issues per year in February, June and October) Most of the papers published in this multidisciplinary journal can be related to biology, chemistry, engineering, material sciences, informatics, mathematics, medicine, and physics. Using the last five years (volumes 11 to 15) the number of published papers per issue on average is ~ 9 and the average duration time between submission and acceptance of a paper is ~ 67 days, i.e. larger than two months.

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  • Page No: 5383-5392

    Badr Mohammed Almezaini and Muhammad Asif Khan

    Educational institutions strive to monitor and develop student academic performance by difference means in order to prepare quality graduates. Educational data mining is increasingly becoming a latest trend which aids educational institutions to predict academic performance of students using machine learning techniques. Researchers have conducted research to predict student academic performance, but did not consider the prerequisite courses for final graduation project which is major culmination activity of an undergraduate degree program. As result students could not develop quality projects. In this current study we have used student data in three prerequisite courses required to begin graduation project. We have used data of three prerequisite courses and applied Naïve Bayes. J48 and Neural Network algorithms in WEKA to predict student performance in final graduation project. The accuracy and confusion matrix have been discussed and the results obtained in both the classifiers also elaborated. The results help students to focus and complete graduation projects with high quality

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  • Page No: 5393-5398

    Amrit Šorli and Saeid Jafari

    The inverted pendulum on the vertically vibrating device and floating liquids in the box on the vertically vibrating device are well-known phenomena. These phenomena are explained as the result of forces on the pendulum and floating liquids. These forces are produced by the vibrating device. The explanation and the mathematics describing these phenomena are in the frame of technical physics. Besides this explanation, there is also a model of superfluid quantum space where a vertically vibrating device creates waves of superfluid quantum space. These waves are pointing in the opposite direction of gravity and are keeping the inverted pendulum in a vertical position. When gravity force and the net force of the waves are in equilibrium the water in the box under which is air will float.

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  • Page No: 5399-5401

    Uzma Manzoor, Muhammad Moazzam, Salman Zubair, M. Zaheer Khan and Babar Hussain

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is common in the entire coastal belt of Pakistan, shared by two provinces, Sindh and Balochistan. No record of nesting of Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) found since 2003 and 2004, respectively, however, distributed in off shore waters of Pakistan, similarly nesting of Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Leather back turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) was not identified in coastal areas. Gill netting and bycatch are the major threats to marine turtle species. Alteration of nesting habitat, harvesting of eggs, plastic and photo pollution, solid waste, oil spillage, developmental and anthropogenic activities could be the main causes of non-nesting behaviour of marine turtle species. Impact of lockdown since March 2020 is positive on nesting behaviour of Green turtle as public is not allowed to visit sea sites, hence disturbance not faced by female turtles. Climate change impact on nesting is not drastic but sex ratio is affected. Sindh Wildlife Department, Coastal Association for Research and Development (CARD) Balochistan and other non-governmental organizations such as International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Wide Funds for Nature (WWF-Pakistan) and Scientific and Cultural Society of Pakistan (SCSP) are playing important role for the conservation of marine turtles in Pakistan.

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  • Page No: 5403-5417

    Akinboro Adetayo, Olaniyi Temitope Adedosu, Akintola Adebola Olayemi, Gbadebo Emmanuel Adeleke, Badmus Jelili Abiodun, Omolara Omowumi Babalola and Babatunde Adetunji Ayodele

    Methotrexate is a known chemotherapeutic agent with high degree of potency accumulating in tissues inducing varying degrees of toxicities. This study investigated the haematological disorder and dyslipidaemia associated with methotrexate toxicities and the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Lannae egregia (EELE) leaves, a local anticancer medicinal plant in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats averagely weighing 150 g were randomly selected into six groups : group A (distilled water only), group B ( 2.5 mg/ of methotrexate only for 21days at 7days interval), group C (pre-treated with 100 mg/ of EELE daily and 2.5mg/ of methotrexate at 7days interval), group D (pre-treated with 100 mg/ of ascorbic acid daily and 2.5mg/ of methotrexate at 7days interval), while group E and F were administered 100 mg/ of EELE and 100 mg/ of ascorbic acid daily respectively. Administration was done orally in 0.1 ml solution for 35 days. Plasma total protein levels, haematological parameters and lipid profile were determinates via quality methods. Results showed that group B, elicit significant (p<0.05) decreases in total protein levels, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with corresponding significant (p<0.05) increases in white blood cell count, lymphocyte, platelets, triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the plasma. However, combined treatment with methotrexate and EELE (group C) as well as rats treated with methotrexate and ascorbic acid (group D) showed ameliorative effect following metabolic alterations associated with methotrexate administration as these parameters were reversed significantly with greater effects observed in rats treated with extract only (group E) and ascorbic acid only (group F). Results are indication of haematological disorder and alterations of lipid metabolism by methotrexate, while EELE attenuates these effects via possible anti oxidative effect that compared favourably with ascorbic acid. It also showed synergistic effect with ascorbic acid in attenuating methotrexate toxicity.

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  • Page No: 5419-5425

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