- AN ALTERNATIVE TO UNDERSTAND THE ORIGIN OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION AND THE COSMIC BACKGROUND MICROWAVE RADIATION FROM A SUPER PHOTON THEORY

Wenzhong David Zhang

Through analysing the interactions between the immersed matter particles and the thermal bath of a vast Super photon ocean, the Super photon theory is developed quantitatively. The correlation between the Gravitational constant and the Hubble constant is deduced. The generalised law of Universal Gravitation, the Tully-Fisher law, and the Modified Newtonian Dynamics relation are derived theoretically. The dynamic equilibrium and circulation of mass and energy of the Universe are discussed. Flavour oscillation observed in neutrinos is taken as an evidence of immersed matter particles that undergo two-way energy exchange with the thermal bath of the vast Super photon ocean having local fluctuations. Gravitational waves are viewed as periodic density and pressure oscillations of the Super photon particles propagating through the vast Super photon ocean. The temperature and the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation are explained theoretically and determined accurately using the Super photon theory together with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The capability of a photon particle travelling at the constant speed of light in the free space with a friction force is verified theoretically. Further supporting evidences to the Super photon theory are provided. An experiment is proposed for the further proof of the Super photon theory.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5283-5295 - LOGIC GATE ARITHMETIC AND QUATERNIONS

Christopher C. O’Neill

A new method for Logic Gate Arithmetic is proposed allowing sets to be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided in an novel way leading to an alternate and expanded appreciation of the Set Theory. An additional eleven Logic Operators are derived from the known operators: AND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR, and their relationships described. Utilizing the principles of Dimensional Gate Operators (DGO), the new operators are shown to be directly related to dimensionality, both higher and lower, and the relationship to the Quaternions is given preliminary treatment.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5297-5305 - EXACT CRITICAL VALUES OF THE WILCOXON RANK SUM TEST

Friday Ewere and Sunday Martins Ogbonmwan

Generating the entire permutation sample space especially when sample sizes are not small have been a major problem in constructing an exact test of significance of a rank statistic. Recently, the use of softwares for computing statistical tests has become common. However, procedures on this software for calculating the significance levels for many nonparametric tests are based on asymptotic results. These asymptotic results are only reliable when sample sizes are large enough. Unfortunately, the definition of what constitute a large sample size for most statistics is quite vague. The aim of this paper is to formulate a method for obtaining the exact distribution of a rank statistic. The proposed method is based on combinatorics in the representation of the probability generating function of the test statistic. The proposed method bypasses the problem of actually carrying out a complete enumeration in a permutation test. Essentially, the exact critical values for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum (WRS) test statistic are produced. The asymptotic property of the WRS is carefully studied and the minimum sample size required for the application of the large sample approximation is provided.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5307-5316 - MAGNETIC SCALAR FIELD GENERATOR

Vitaliy Zamsha1 and Vladimir Shevtsov

In this work, the authors represent an innovative construction of the scalar field generator called the “scalar field gun”. The scalar field gun proposed in this article can be used as a magnetic scalar field generator for some researches in physics, biology, medicine or as a part of communication systems, etc. For educational purposes, some relevant information from free Internet sources is reviewed in this article to educate undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate students as well as engineers and researches whose interests lie in the field of new communication technologies.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5317-5322 - UNDERSTANDING THE PLANCK CONSTANT AND THE BEHAVIOUR OF PHOTON PARTICLES FROM A MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE

Wenzhong David Zhang

The Planck constant is derived from the analysing of the energy and frequency relationship of a simple harmonic oscillator model for photon particles from a mechanical perspective. The correlation between the Planck constant, the inertial mass, the angular frequency, and the corresponding radius of the harmonic oscillation of the photon particle is derived. The photon particles have equal mechanical angular momentum. This insight is applied to the propagation of photon particles in the free space and other transparent media based on the model of the cycloid motion of harmonic oscillators. The interdependence of the properties of photon particles and their entanglements with their surrounding spaces are elicited. Kepler’s second and third laws of motion are deduced for the specified photon particle in the free space and other transparent media. For any particle in periodic motion with the rotational symmetry, its inertial mass, its time period, and its space displacement are entangled together by its conserved mechanical angular momentum. The centre of the periodic motion with the rotational symmetry is proposed as a universally applicable reference frame to simplify and unify the laws of physics. The generalized Planck constant, generalized Planck-Einstein relation, and generalized de Broglie relation are proposed for applications in both microcosms and macrocosms.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5323-5332 - THE SHAPE OF A PHOTON

Christopher C. O’Neill

This paper deals with partial confirmation of the shape of a photon via a new kind of mathematics, where imaginary numbers are privileged over real numbers when an absolute value is given, by the way of the XNOR logic gate. The research begins with polynomials and then progresses from a planar wave form to a final and more accurate radial wave form. This research study reveals the mechanism behind the results of the Double Slit experiment.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5333-5340 - AURA DETECTOR BASED ON LUMINESCENCE

Vitaliy Zamsha and Vladimir Shevtsov

In this short communication, the authors described the proposed aura detection system based on the luminescence phenomena in combination with the photomultiplier. This system can detect aura of living organisms and nonliving objects. Such aura detecting systems can be used in various fields of activity: in medicine, biology, ecology, etc. It can be also used as the receiver in new communication systems, in which the torsion field participate.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5341-5344 - REVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY

Sehrish Khan, Saima Siddiqui , M. Asif Iqbal , Ghazala Yasmeen , Ubaid Ullah , Afsheen Zehra , Tahira A Lateef , Shaista Aslam and Naseem Samreen

Globally climate change and loss of biodiversity are major environmental threats that we are facing today. Changes in species habitats compositions, and consequently changes in ecosystem functioning are some major effects of climate changes. There are various natural or anthropogenic activities that cause fluctuations in the climatic condition. Natural causes are volcanic eruptions, variability in the solar radiations, plate tectonic and orbital fluctuations of the Earth. While other are human activities that causes the climatic variations such as deforestation, over exploitations of natural resources, industrial toxic effluents, extensive agricultural practices, mismanagement of valuable resources and many more. When climate fluctuates from normal level, it has adverse effects on the biodiversity. Firstly it affects the temperature either increase or decrease at extreme level that leads to various changes within the ecosystem and then their interaction with wild or aquatic species causes disruption in different activities perform by the producers, herbivore and carnivore fauna. Due to climatic variations glaciers are starting to melt, increases the aquatic level which ultimately leads to the flooding conditions and produce harm to human being, destruct the habitat as well as disturbs the animals of aquatic ecosystem. On the other hand when the water of these melting glaciers enter into the sea it decreases its salinity which causes threats to the survival of many marine species. Ice covers in the upper surface of water also melts due to temperature increase and this phenomenon influence the productivity of phytoplankton upon which the whole marine life depends on. In addition it causes strong storms and tornados which made severe destructions, also drought due to less rains and prolonged heat waves influence badly on biodiversity. Several species are also affected by the threats of climate fluctuations as they adapt themselves or migrate for their survival. Other impacts of climate change includes early migration of birds and delayed return due to harsh weather conditions, changes in breeding cycle and the synchrony of two mutual species that are interlinked with each other in various aspects of predation and availability food. Species of sea turtle lost several nesting sites, due to sea levels rise and unsustainable coastal developments. In this paper we review natural causes and anthropogenic activities and their effects on biodiversity, terrestrial ecosystem, change on species phenology, population range and its composition, habitat fragmentations, affected functions of ecosystem, coral bleaching, migration of aquatic species, and rising sea levels.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5345-5352 - A REVIEW ON THE BOOK BY KHMELNIK: NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS ON THE EXISTENCE AND THE SEARCH METHOD FOR GLOBAL SOLUTIONS

Aleksey Anatolievich Zakharenko

In 2010, Khmelnik has developed his theoretical method applicable for resolving problems existing in mechanics, electrodynamics, electrical engineering, hydrodynamics. For hydrodynamics, this method allowed for Khmelnik to resolve the Navier-Stokes equations. However, this work by Khmelnik is not widely known. As a result, there are still both analytical and numerical attempts to find a suitable method of resolving of the Navier-Stokes equations. The work by Khmelnik provides the obtained results in both analytical forms and color graphical three-dimensional illustrations. Therefore, this review has the purpose to briefly acquaint the reader with the resolving method that was successfully applied to the Navier-Stokes equations and the other problems in physics.

*Full text**PDF*
Page No: 5353-5358