- REIMAGINING COMPLEX NUMBERS

Christopher C. O’Neill

This work starts by examining the square root problem, i.e. (–1)1/2. By looking for practical solutions to this problem, it arrives at a new mathematical space, where imaginary numbers can be reinterpreted free from their algebraic context and therefore from an entirely different perspective. This new mathematical space is based on XNOR logic gates and deals strictly with operators. Further permutations of this method lead to a total of 16-dimensional gate operator spaces, which may have some application to Quantum Mechanics.

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Page No: 5201-5219 - THE FOUNDATION OF AN EMERGED SUPER PHOTON THEORY

Wenzhong David Zhang

The limitations of modern theoretical physics with Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations, including the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics in their standard forms, are briefly reviewed. The foundation of an emerged Super photon theory is introduced. The energy dissipated by a photon during one cycle is elicited as the product of the Planck constant and the Hubble constant. The tiny fragment of the energy dissipated per photon in each cycle is defined as a Super photon. The Super photon is a fundamental unit of dynamic energy and mass. The Super photons and normal photons interact with each other to form a vast thermal bath, and a new description is proposed as mixed two-fluid photons. A lightly damped oscillator model is applied to the propagation of photon particles in space from a mechanical perspective. It is elicited that the Hubble constant is the ratio between the viscous resistance of space and the equivalent inertial mass of the travelling photon particle. The exponential correlation between the Cosmic Redshift and the Hubble constant is derived theoretically using two separate methods. The Super photon theory based on the lightly damped harmonic oscillator model is a kind of the advanced Tired-Light theory.

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Page No: 5221-5229 - WEIGHT, MASS, ENERGY, TEMPERATURE, PERMITTIVITY, PERMEABILITY, AND CHEMISTRY DETERMINE REFRACTIVE INDICES

Stephen Arthur Langford Langford Consulting, Danielson

In the previous paper, assumption of a Vacuum Structure led to creation of predicted and residual models for rest mass (m), energy (E), and weight (W). Those models were based only upon prior work by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, Planck, and de Broglie; experimentally estimated refractive-index (RI) probability levels and related temperature data not having been considered. Here, the question of how best to model the statistic (L%+E%), against those factors of Quantum Mechanics (QM), is explored. (L%) is the statistical cumulative-frequency-distribution surface and (E%) is the statistical-density-function surface. Variables based upon temperatures set for immersion liquids and those estimated also for immersed-fragment interiors are found nicely to improve the QM-only models. These results demonstrate at least one realm in which QM aspects interrelate seamlessly with the so-called “Real World” of statistically-significant RI data sets generated by a mere experimental human.

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Page No: 5231-5238 - TDOS QUANTUM MECHANICAL VISUAL ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE MOLECULES

P. Contreras, L. Seijas & D. Osorio

With pedagogical purposes, we have analyzed the relation of the total densities of states (TDOS/PDOS/OPDOS) and molecular orbital diagrams (MOD) for single and isolated molecules of Water and Nitrogen. We used the calculation level HF/6-311G, spreading the energy eigenvalues around the TDOS spikes and using the Mulliken visual analysis in Multiwfn to showcase our findings. We discuss the possibility to use these electrons’ orbit population diagrams, in conjunction with the more intuitive MOD diagrams to teach the Quantum Mechanics of simple molecular isolated structures.

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Page No: 5239-5245 - THE DYNAMIC CIRCULATION OF MIXED TWO-FLUID PHOTONS

Wenzhong David Zhang

There is a vast thermal bath of photons in the Universe. A new description is proposed as mixed two-fluid photons. A theoretical illustration is provided for photon particles from the analysing of the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation and the estimation of the Lambda-point transition temperature of super-fluidity by the application of the London formula obtained in 1938. For photons with wavelength long enough and with number density high enough, for instance, Super photons, it is feasible that they can be in the quantum liquid state of super-fluidity, although the interactions between them are weak, and the temperatures of their environments are not low. The detection of the unexpectedly deep absorption profile of radio background spectrum and that local areas in free space can be warmed up or cooled down to a temperature distribution by artificially controlled or temporarily appeared intense flux of high energy photons are listed as supportive evidences of Super photon theory and mixed two-fluid photons.The general form of the Einstein-Smoluchowski-Sutherland relation is derived for a specified volume of space. A mathematic frame for the dynamic circulation of mixed two-fluid photons with fluctuation is developed quantitatively. A significant rediscovering is that a photon particle in the time and spatial domain is the superposition of a conjugate pair of single frequency photon waves in the frequency domain. The similarity between mixed two-fluid photons and two-fluid liquid helium at super-fluidity is compared briefly, which comprise yet more evidence to support the theory of the dynamic circulation of mixed two-fluid photons.

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Page No: 5247-5252 - GRAVITY LEVELS COMPUTED FROM REFRACTIVE INDICES DISPLAYED BY POWDERED-ROCK FRAGMENTS

Stephen Arthur Langford

Refractive-index (RI) data are used to model gravity (g, gals) levels displayed by powdered-rock fragments. The base g level at each of two laboratories, were regressed with case (and other) weighting of 696 cases; representing all but two (2) of the 698, in which a total of 76,798 fragment RIs were compared to those of immersion liquids.

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Page No: 5253-5259 - OCTONIONS, THE THREE FLAVOURS OF MATTER AND A NEW KIND OF SUPER-SYMMETRY

Christopher C. O’Neill

It has been long theorized that there is some relationship between Octonions and the Standard Model. This paper reveals that there is just such a relationship and that it can solve many of the questions surrounding the Standard Model. These include: the seeming disorder of the particles and their masses; why there are three flavors of matter; and why some bosons are massless and some aren’t. The solution comes from the precise ordering of the elementary particles in the Pentonions, before expansion via triangular numbers into the Octonions, leading to a potentially new kind of Super- Symmetry.

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Page No: 5261-5268 - A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE FOOD AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF CAPTIVE AFRICAN ELEPHANTS IN THE SAFARI PARK AND KARACHI ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN

Sehrish Khan, Roohi Kanwal, Ubaid Ullah, Shaista Aslam, Uzma Manzoor, *M Zaheer Khan, Ponum Nasir, Laraiba Noor, Kazim Hussain, Abida Rais, Aamir Ismail and Syed Ali Ghalib

This study examined the foraging behavior of elephants kept at Safari Park and Karachi Zoological Garden over a period of one year. There are four African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in captivity at Karachi city. In the Safari Park, elephants are housed in a large enclosure made up of cement-flooring occupying the area of 68000 sq ft, however they spend most of their time in resting area which is located within the enclosure, and they take walk for about four hours in the morning and two hours in the evening per day outside the sand flooring area. While in the Zoological Garden they are housed in an enclosure comprising the area of 15534 sq ft which is separated from resting area comprising of 1978 sq ft. It was recorded that each elephant in Safari Park consumes about 221.5 kg of food per day, while each elephant housed in Karachi Zoo consumes about 265 kg of food per day which includes 58.6% of plant matter and 41.3% of supplementary diet. Zoo captive elephants, in particular have been the subject of several debates, related to walking, foot health, and stereotypic behavior. This study shows that the food provided to them fulfills the basic nutritional requirements. Elephants did not show any aggressive behavior during the study period. The actions and movements of the trunk by the elephants during their daily activity were also noted.

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Page No: 5269-5276 - URBAN WETLAND OF KARACHI: A REVIEW OF VERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY OF SAFARI PARK WETLAND

Shaista Aslam, Ghazala Yasmeen, Ubaid Ullah, Sehrish Khan, Uzma Manzoor, Tahira Lateef, Ponum Nasir, Laraiba Noor and Syed Ali Ghalib

Wetlands are most productive ecosystems in the world. While the urban wetlands ecosystem has significantly suffered as a result of the impact of urbanization. Urban wetlands are important for minimizing the adverse effects of heat wave and maintaining the biological ecosystem. In Karachi city Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Safari Park wetland and wetland near Sindbad Park provide good aquatic habitat for migratory birds and breeding ground for resident birds. Present study was conducted during November 2017 to April 2018 and inventory of vertebrate fauna in Safari park wetland is presented. As many as 4 species of fishes, 2 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 36 species of birds, and 2 species of mammals were recorded. While migratory birds including Great cormorant, Great white pelican and Dalmatian pelican were also recorded in which Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is Near threatened globally. In January 2018 we recorded 136 migratory water birds, which is the highest population during the migratory season at Safari Park wetland. No adverse effects of water pollution were found on the aquatic biodiversity of wetland of Safari Park.

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Page No: 5277-5282