Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences

An International Journal

    Volume 11, Issue: 1, Feb 2017


  • DISCRIMINATION OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN DIFFERENT OVARIAN CANCER CELLS USING A SINGLE-CELL BIOANALYZER
    Haiyan Wang, Avid Khamenehfar, Michael Chung Kay Wong, James Lian Zhong Wang, Paul Chi Hang Li, Da Zhou, Marinko Sarunic, Feng Feng, Hairong Cao and King Leung Fung

    A single-cell bioanalyzer (SCB) was presented to detect different ovarian cancer cells, i.e. to discriminate NCI/ADRRES cells, which are multidrug resistant (MDR), from non-MDR OVCAR-8 cells. This discrimination has been achieved in the single-cell level by measuring drug accumulation in real-time, in which the accumulation is high in nonMDR single-cells without drug efflux, but is low in MDR single-cells with efflux. The SCB was constructed as an inverted microscope for optical imaging and fluorescence measurement of a cell that was retained in a microfluidic chip. The cell retained in the chip offers sufficient fluorescence signals for the SCB to measure the accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR) in a single ovarian cancer cell in the absence of the MDR inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA). The same cell allows us to detect the enhanced drug accumulation due to MDR modulation in the presence of CsA. The measurement of drug accumulation in a cell was achieved after it was captured in the chip, with the correction of background interference. The detection of accumulation enhancement due to MDR modulation by CsA was determined in terms of either the accumulation rate or enhanced amount of DNR in the same single-cell. It showed that with the effectiveness of efflux-blocking by CsA, DNR in a single-cell was increased by 3-fold against its same-cell control. For this single-cell bioanalyzer (SCB), it has the ability to discriminate MDR in different ovarian cells due to drug efflux in them by eliminating the interference of background fluorescence and by using the same-cell control.

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  • Page No: 4053-4060

  • DETERMINATION OF TIME OF INSECTICIDE APPLICATION AGAINST POTATO TUBER MOTH, PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA ZELLER (LEP.: GELECHIIDAE) IN THE FIELD CONDITIONS IN TURKEY
    Pervin Erdogan and Errol Hassan

    The aim of this study was to determine the time of pesticides application to control potato tuber moth [Phthorimae operculella (Zeller) (Lep.: Gelechiidae)] in Turkish field conditions. For this purpose, the experiments were carried out in three provinces (Afyonkarahisar, Kirsehir and Bolu) of Turkey in 2013–2015. Sex pheromone traps were used to determine when adults first emerged in field and were checked at weekly intervals. During the experiments, all of the plant leaves and tubers were checked to determine any infestations. Three insecticides were used to determine against PTM. Five different pesticide schedules were tested although not in all provinces. In Bolu Province, the best schedule was achieved by a three spray technique with the first spray application being applied when adults are first identified in the field in pheromone traps, followed by a second application one month after the first application, with a third spraying 15 days before harvest. This schedule was no tested in Kirsehir and Afyonkarahisar Provinces where applications linked to pheromone trap detections and preharvest schedules were most effective

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  • Page No: 4061-4066

  • EXTENT OF FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES CONTAMINATED BY ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) IN KARACHI COSTAL AREAS: ASSESSMENT USING AN IN-VITRO YEAST ESTROGENIC SCREENING (YES) TEST
    M Zaheer Khan, Farhana Ali, Alvin Louie, Afsheen Zehra, Karim Gabol, Roohi Kanwal, Ghazala Yasmeen, M Asif Iqbal, Uzma Manzoor, Ubaid Ullah and Francis CP Law

    The objective of the present study was to screen for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) contamination in fish (Engraulis purava) and mussel (Mytilus) in 10 selected areas of Karachi coast. After the baseline survey, we selected Paradise Point, Hawks Bay, Sandspit, Manora, Baba Island, and Korangi/Phitti Creek to collect fish samples where as Buleji point 1 & point 2, Paradise point 1 & point 2, and Manora point 1 & point 2 were selected for mussel samples. The YES bioassay was used in the present study to screen marine fish and mussel for EDC. According to findings the most contaminated area is Baba Island in which the Anchovy contained 95.78ngE2 equivalents/g wet weight of fish tissue whereas the anchovy collected from Sandspit contained 20.70ng/g of fish tissue. The second most polluted area is Korangi/ Phitti Creek where the fish samples contain an average of 77.19ng/g, ww. In the mussel samples, Buleji point 1 area contains an average of 875.23ng/g, ww, and most polluted area for mussel as compared to other study areas. Further investigation such as chemical analysis has been recommended for identification of chemicals

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  • Page No: 4067-4077

  • FEED AND TROPHIC MORPHOLOGY OF YELLOW HAKE CYNOSCION ACOUPA (LACÈPEDE, 1801) IN THE NORTHEAST BRAZIL
    Francisca Edna de Andrade Cunha

    The stomach contents analysis revealed 72.4% of the items as fishes, 4.56% as crustaceans, 23.0% of organic matter and 0.1% as seagrass. The item Teleostei was featured as essential in feeding followed by fish Ariidae Family and the crustaceans, especially Penaeidae. The morphology of the digestive tube is characterized by presented short and tubular esophagus, stomach cecal form \\\"Y\\\" may be divided into cardiac (greater proportion), fundic and pyloric regions. The sphincter pyloric marks the transition from the stomach to the intestine. The intestine presented coefficient of 0.87 showed medium intestine and rectum portion separated by an ileo-rectal valve

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  • Page No: 4079-4085

  • SURVEY OF TICK (ACARI: IXODIDAE) INFESTATIONS OF CATTLE IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, NEW BUSSA, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
    Simon MK, Saba M, Mohammed BR and Agbede RIS

    Ticks and Tick borne diseases are major constraints to the development of viable livestock industries in tropical and subtropical countries including Nigeria. Little is known about the incidence of ticks in New Bussa. This study was therefore carried out at the Federal College of Wild life Management to investigate the degree of tick infestation of cattle in the college farm. A total of eighteen (18) cattle from two breeds of cattle (Sokoto Gudali and Fulani breeds) were randomly sampled out and grouped into three viz Colored Fulani (A), Sokoto Gudali(B) and White Fulani (C). Ticks were collected using a manual picking method over a period of eight months covering both dry (Jan-April) and wet (MayAugust) seasons in 2014. Ticks collected were sorted out as hard (Ixodidae) and soft (Argasidae) ticks. Results revealed that the college farm is endemic with ticks especially the soft ticks (55.17%) than hard ticks (44.83%) and higher numbers were recorded during wet season (soft ticks, 93.39%; hard ticks 6.61%) than dry season (Soft ticks 14.29%; hard ticks 85.71%). Furthermore, Colored Fulani had more affinity to ticks than Sokoto Gudali and White Fulani. There is a significant difference between the dry and wet season as the calculated value was 18.68 against the tabulated value 5.19. Tick infestations are strategically controlled through acaricide application either by hand spray or bath on regular basis. This study has implication on sustainable beef production for human consumption

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  • Page No: 4087-4090

  • A REVIEW: VERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY, ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF KEENJHAR LAKE, PAKISTAN
    Iqbal Saeed Khan, M Usman Ali Hashmi, Amtyaz Safi and Tahira Abdul Latif

    Globally there are 2247 Ramsar sites with total area of 214,958,432 ha, including 19 sites of Pakistan. Keenjhar Lake is considered as one of largest freshwater lakes of Sindh, and it is the major source of water supply through different feeder canals to largest city of Karachi. There are 54 species of fishes, 121 species of birds, 25 species of mammals, two species of amphibian and 29 species of reptiles were reported. Aquatic ecosystem of the lake is under threat due to increased industrial and domestic effluent discharge via Kalri-Baghar Feeder Canal which carries contaminants from Kotri urban and Industrial area. KB Feeder Canal is the main source of pollution to Keenjhar Lake. Presently, industrial discharge from Kotri and Nooriabad industries are source for affecting water quality and health of this wetland, we also noted that eutrophication is also problem in the lake. Water samples collected from Keenjhar Lake found contained pesticides below the Maximum Acceptable Concentrations level

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  • Page No: 4091-4102

  • THE PROBLEM OF FINDING OF EIGENVECTORS FOR 4P-SH-SAW PROPAGATION IN 6 mm MEDIA
    Aleksey Anatolievich Zakharenko

    This theoretical report is pertinent to the mathematical problem of finding of all the possible eigenvectors for the fourpotential shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (4P-SH-SAW) propagation in suitable solids. In this case, the wave propagation is coupled with the four potentials, i.e. the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and cogravitational ones. The taking into account these four potentials results in significant difficulties to find any eigenvector because the mathematical method is significantly complicated. To find all suitable eigenvectors is very important here because it will allow one in the future to theoretically disclose all suitable solutions of acoustic waves. This is applicable to the problem of finding of propagation velocities of the SH-SAWs, interfacial SH-waves, plate SH-waves, and more complicated cases. It is thought that all the effects (for instance, the gravitocogravitic, gravitoelectric, cogravitoelectric, gravitomagnetic, cogravitomagnetic effects) individually or collaboratively participating in the acoustic wave propagation can be vital for acoustic wave propagation that can be readily used for constitution of suitable technical devices. This fact must be first demonstrated theoretically for experimentalists and engineers working with the transmitting, detecting, and converting of the electromagnetic waves’ signals. It is expected that the future communication technologies will also exploit gravitational waves for the new communication era based on some gravitational phenomena.

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  • Page No: 4103-4119

  • RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION AND EXCESS LIFETIME CANCER RISK DUE TO GAMMA EXPOSURE OF SOIL AND GROUND WATER AROUND OPEN LANDFILLS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
    Ononugbo C.P, Avwiri G.O and Agbalagba, E.O

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K and excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma exposure of soil and ground water around open landfills in Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 21 soil and 17 ground water samples were collected around Aluu and Rumuolumeni landfills. Soil and water samples were analyzed using a well calibrated gamma-ray spectrometry (NaI (Tl)) detector system after they have reached radiogenic equilibrium. The mean specific activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K for soil samples were 48.44± 4.08 Bqkg-1, 39.68±2.48Bqkg-1 and 416.48±11.23Bqkg-1 in Aluu landfill and 22.99± 1.04Bqkg-1, 12.94± 0.84Bqkg-1 and 169.11±5.46Bqkg-1 in the Rumuolumeni landfill respectively, while in water they were 10.58± 1.09Bql-1, 10.30±1.02 Bql-1 and 173. 78±21.32Bql-1 in Aluu landfill and 11.01±3.44Bql-1, 16.26± 3.77Bql-1 and 225.88± 36.10Bql-1in Rumuolumeni landfill respectively. The mean activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K around Aluu landfill were higher than the permissible values. The radiation hazard indices calculated for the soil samples around Aluu landfill were higher than their permissible values. All other radiation hazard indices calculated in all the samples (soil and ground water) from both Aluu and Rumuolumeni landfill were below unity. Based on our present study, we concluded that activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in soil and ground water samples were high and Excess lifetime cancer risk calculated for all the samples analyzed were higher than the safe limits, therefore long term radiation exposure of the residents around Aluu and Rumuolumeni landfill will pose significant health threat, thus the ground water from these study areas should be treated for radionuclide before ingestion to reduce the radiation risk

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  • Page No: 4121-4130

  • REMOVAL OF MICRO POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM PET WASTE
    Abdoul Ntieche Rahman, Abdoul Wahabou, Patrick Mountapmbeme Kouotou, Abdelaziz Bacaoui

    The aim of this study was the production of activated carbons (ACs) starting from urban plastics waste that is the postconsumer bottles made of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) as raw material, the characterization and the investigation of their efficiency in the removal of micro-pollutants such as chloro- and nitro-phenolic compounds from an aqueous solution. Plastics waste were carbonized at 600°C in an inert N2 atmosphere and the resulting char was subjected to the physical and physico-chemical activation at 850ºC. The ACs prepared by this method were characterized in terms of structure, pore texture, microstructure and surface functional groups. Finally, the ACs prepared were successfully tested as adsorbent in the removal of 4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol from an aqueous solution. The influence of the activation method on the performance of the so-prepared ACs was investigated and discussed. On the basis of the results obtained the greatest performance in the removal performance of 4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol was observed with the sample obtained from physico-chemical activation. It was thus suggested that the physico-chemical activation leads to the formation of chemical bond at the surface of the adsorbent so prepared, showing that the impregnation of char with KOH before physical activation enhance the formation of functional groups necessary for chemisorption

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  • Page No: 4131-4140

  • TOTAL ELECTRON CONTENT VARIATIONS DURING DIFFERENT GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES IN ILE-IFE, NIGERIA
    EI Akintufede, LG Olatunbosun, AO Olabode, AB Babinisi and EA. Ariyibi

    GPS-derived vertical Total Electron content (TEC) recorded at Ile-Ife (Mlat. 7.52oN and Mlong. 4.28oE), Nigeria during the year 2011 for different geomagnetic activities was analyzed to investigate TEC variations. The results showed that TEC exhibit diurnal and seasonal variations, with equinoctial season recording the highest TEC during the daytime maximum. Winter anomaly was absent. Comparative results revealed that IRI-2012 underestimates measured TEC during the different geomagnetic activities in Ile-Ife. An average value of about 40% deviation between the modeled and measured TEC was obtained during moderate and intense geomagnetic activities, while that during low geomagnetic activities was about 11%.

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  • Page No: 4141-4149

  • OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE: CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE SPHERULITES ? AND ?, AND THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES
    Sokainah Rawashdeh and Ayed Alsharafat

    The optical properties of isotactic polypropylene were studied according to different crystallization temperatures. Early beginning of growth of isotactic polypropylene were observed at different stages of growth, where the structures begins with primary nuclei developed through isolated single lamella, then develops into a lamellar sheaves and finally attains the spherulitic structure. Two main types of spherulites, (alpha) and (beta) spherulites appears for the isotactic polypropylene over a wide range of crystallization temperature. However, the difference between spherulites types appears due to the difference in its contents of radial lamellae and cross hatching beside the difference in crystallization temperature and melting points

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  • Page No: 4151-4156

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